Diabetes is a common endocrinal disorder, now identified as a metabolic syndrome, affecting over 100 million people worldwide. The World Health Organisation and International Diabetes Federation have predicted an epidemic of Diabetes in India by the year 2025. The prevalence of Type II Diabetes or NIDDM is growing at a very fast rate in urban and semi-urban population. Diabetes mellitus is a condition characterized by chronic elevation of blood glucose levels. Many patients are asymptomatic and Glycosuria is noticed on a routine medical check-up Tiresomeness and weight loss are common in this condition.
Patients may complain of thirst, polydipsia, polyuria and nocturia related to a glucose induced osmotic diuresis. Pruritus vulvae and balanitis are related to candidial infections of the genitalia. Visual disturbance is caused by a temporary lens malfunction. Pain and parasthaesia in the limbs may be present, caused by a painful neuropathy. A strong genetic component is invariably found in Type 1 diabetes and visceral obesity is associated with Type 2 diabetes. In recent researches it was found that individual shaving Acanthosis nigricans (a skin manifestation) are more prone to get diabetes. Good control of diabetes always involves die, exercise and drugs.
The aim of the treatment is to keep the blood sugar level within the normal range throughout the 24 hours to avoid ketosis, infections and other long-term complications. Every patient must be assessed individually.